Effects of Gonadectomy on Health, Behavior and Performance of Pets
The frequency with which companion animals are sexually neutered varies considerably among regions. Neutering pets is highly promoted and performed in a large majority of animals in the United States, but rare or at least not common in many European countries.
Are there reasons to recommend castrating or spaying pets other than to feel good about not contributing to the pet overpopulation problem and avoiding the hassle of having a litter in your home? Like any other medical procedure, gonadectomy decreases the risks of some conditions while increasing those of others. One thing that seems clear is that gonadectomized dogs and cats are less likely to be relinquished by their owners to humane organizations than sexually-intact pets, largely due to beneficial effects on behavior; in other words, animals that are gonadectomized, in general, make more desirable family members.
Effects on Behavior
Gonadectomy effectively eliminates reproductive cycles and estrous behavior in females, which is probably the foremost benefit sought by pet owners that spay their bitch or queen. Having your pet spayed will also eliminate your home as a regular neighborhood attraction for roaming males looking for a good time.
It must be admitted that males are a more common source of objectional behavior than females. Such behavior is a common cause for owners to relinquish their pets. Several studies have addressed the question of how castration affects behavior in dogs and cats. To summarize:
Effects on Incidence of Disease
Removal of the gonads eliminates or decreases the incidence of several diseases of reproductive and non-reproductive systems:
There is abundant evidence that gonadectomy increases the risk for development of certain disorders, sometimes apparently in a breed-specific manner. In dogs, gonadectomy has been associated with increased risk of a variety of cancers and orthopedic diseases (e.g. hip dysplasia), and, in females, estrogen-responsive urinary incontinence. Incontinence is manifest as dribbling of urine, either during sleep or at times of excitement; a majority of such cases are readily treated with estrogen replacement therapy. A related estrogen-responsive problem observed in some spayed bitches is atrophic vaginitis.
Development of Obesity and Lethargy
A concern commonly expressed by owners is that spaying or castrating their pet will cause it to become "fat and lazy", and indeed, gonadectomy does appear to be a risk factor for devleopment of obesity. Gonadal hormones undoubtedly have effects on energy metabolism, but are not generally considered to be major players in control of food intake and body weight. However, intact cats of both sexes have been shown to have higher metabolic rates than gonadectomized cohorts, and ovariohysterectomized bitches fed free-choice showed higher food intake than intact control bitches.
Relatively few controlled studies have been conducted to assess the effects of gonadectomy on obesity and activity in pet animals. In one study, 44 working German Shepard dogs were either ovariectomized, ovariectomized and given ovarian autographs, or left intact. During the following year, there were no differences in body mass or work performance among the dogs in these groups. In another study, sedentary beagles that were ovariectomized gained a small amount of weight relative to intact control beagles.
Sled dogs provide another indication that neutering has little effect on development of lethargy or obesity. Many of the males and females that run in races such as the Ididarod are castrated or spayed, and it is commonly recommended that neutering be performed if breeding the animal is not intended. The team to the right is composed exclusively of neutered dogs (courtesy of Melissa Rouge).
It is clear that additional hard data are required to make a solid judgement on the effect of gonadectomy on obesity and activity level. It appears that spaying bitches has little if any effect on subsequent weight gain or activity level if they receive regular exercise. It appears that many of the antecdotal reports of weight gain following gonadecomy are likely associated with normal aging.
References and Reviews
|Index of: Animal Population Control|
Last updated on December 27, 2014
|Author: Richard Bowen|
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